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In , the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor was formed by citizens concerned for the welfare of London's impoverished Black population, many of whom had been expelled from North America as Black Loyalists — former slaves who had fought on the side of the British in the American Revolutionary War.
Others were discharged sailors and some a legacy of British involvement in the slave trade. The committee distributed food, clothing, and medical aid and found work for men, from various locations including the White Raven tavern in Mile End.
In October , the Committee funded an expedition of black men, 40 black women and 70 white women mainly wives and girlfriends to settle in the Province of Freedom in west Africa.
The settlers suffered tremendous hardships and many died, but the Province of Freedom proved to be a major milestone in the establishment of Sierra Leone.
In Cromwell agreed to the return of the Jews , previously banished by Edward I in the 13th century, and the East London became the major centre of Jews in England.
In the mid and late 20th century many of the area's Jews migrated to more prosperous areas in the eastern suburbs and north London.
From the late s the local Muslim population began to increase due to further immigration from the Indian subcontinent, particularly from Sylhet in East Pakistan , which became Bangladesh in The migrants settled in areas already established by the Sylheti expatriate community, working in the local docks and Jewish tailoring shops set up in the days of British India.
At the beginning of the 20th century, London was the capital of the extensive British Empire , which contained tens of millions of Muslims, but London had no mosque.
From to various rooms had been hired for Jumu'ah prayers on Fridays and in , three houses were purchased on Commercial Road , becoming the East London Mosque and Islamic Culture Centre the following year.
In the mosque was moved to a new purpose-built building on Whitechapel Road. Currently, the mosque has a capacity of 7,, with prayer areas for men and women and classroom space for supplementary education.
Immigrants and minorities have not always been readily accepted. In the Evil May Day riots, in which foreign-owned property was attacked, resulted in the deaths of Flemings in Stepney.
The Gordon Riots of began with burnings of the houses of Catholics and their chapels in Poplar and Spitalfields. Evans-Gordon overturned a Liberal majority in the General Election on a platform of limiting immigration.
In Parliament in , Evans-Gordon claimed that "not a day passes but English families are ruthlessly turned out to make room for foreign invaders.
The rates are burdened with the education of thousands of foreign children. On 4 October , around 3—5, uniformed blackshirts from the British Union of Fascists , led by Oswald Mosley and inspired by continental Fascism, assembled to begin an anti-Semitic march through the East End.
Great numbers, of East Londoners, perhaps ,, turned out to oppose them and there were three-way clashes between the Fascists, their East End opponents and the Police.
These engagements, together known as the Battle of Cable Street , forced the fascists were forced to abandon their march, and instead conduct a parade in the West End.
In the mids, anti-Asian violence  culminated in the murder of year-old clothing worker Altab Ali by three white teenagers in a racially motivated attack.
Bangladeshi groups mobilised for self-defence, 7, people marched to Hyde Park in protest, and the community became more politically involved. Racial tension has continued with occasional violence, and in the British National Party won a council seat since lost.
As London extended east, East Enders often moved to opportunities in the new suburbs. The late 19th century saw a major movement of people to West Ham  and East Ham  to service the new docks and industries established there.
There was significant work to alleviate overcrowded housing from the start of the 20th century under the London County Council. Between the wars, people moved to new estates built for this purpose, in particular at Becontree and Harold Hill , or out of London entirely.
The Second World War devastated much of the East End, with its docks, railways and industry forming a continual target for bombing, especially during the Blitz , leading to dispersal of the population to new suburbs and new housing being built in the s.
The resulting depopulation accelerated after the Second World War and has only recently begun to reverse, though the Bangladeshi community, now the largest in Tower Hamlets and established East Enders, are beginning to migrate to the eastern suburbs.
This reflects improved economic circumstances and in this, the latest group of migrants are following a pattern established for over more than three centuries.
These population figures reflect the area that now forms the London Borough of Tower Hamlets only:. Despite a negative image among outsiders, the people of the area take pride in the East End and in their Cockney identity.
The term Cockney has loose geographic and linguistic definitions with blurring between the two. In practice people from all over the East End, the wider East London area and sometimes beyond, identify as Cockneys; some of these use the Cockney dialect to some degree and others not.
A traditional definition is that to be a Cockney, one had to be born within the sound of Bow Bells , situated on Cheapside. The eastern topography is mostly low lying, a factor which combines with the strength and regularity of the prevailing wind, blowing from west-south-west for three quarters of the year,  to carry the sound further to the east, and more often.
In the 19th century the sound would have been heard  as far away as Stamford Hill , Leyton and Stratford , but modern noise pollution means that the bells can only be heard as far as Shoreditch.
The Cockney dialect has lexical borrowings from Yiddish , Romani , and costermonger slang, and a distinctive accent that includes T-glottalization , a loss of dental fricatives, diphthong alterations, the use of rhyming slang and other features.
The accent is said to be a remnant of early English London speech, strongly influenced by the traditional Essex dialect ,  and modified by the many immigrants to the area.
The position of the Cockney dialect in London has been weakened by the promotion of Received Pronunciation RP in the 20th century, and by the scale of migration to London.
This has included both gentrifying domestic migration RP speakers and the scale of international migration.
Conversely, out-migration from East London has spread the Cockney dialect beyond the capital. The Cockney dialect taken beyond London is sometimes referred to as Estuary English, heavily influenced by Cockney and named after the Thames Estuary area where the movement of East Londoners to south Essex and to a lesser extent parts on north Kent led it to be most widely spoken.
By tradition any child born at sea was considered a parishioner of Stepney  the parish covered most of the East End at one time , and could claim Poor Relief there.
They might, by extension, also be called an East-ender. The maritime association is remembered in the old rhyme:. Older versions of the rhyme include the bells at Aldgate , though this may instead reference the bell founding industry in that area.
The Shoreditch bells that feature in the rhyme are used to represent Shoreditch in the Coat of arms of the London Borough of Hackney.
The Whitechapel Bell Foundry opened in , and until its closure in was the oldest manufacturing company in the UK. The Olympic Bell at the London Stadium — the largest harmonically tuned bell in the world and used in the opening ceremony of the games was jointly developed by Whitechapel, in partnership with a Dutch foundry.
Dunstan was a tenth century churchman, statesman and saint with strong links to the East End area. As Bishop of London he was also the Lord of the Manor of Stepney , an estate that included most or all of what would become the East End, and like subsequent bishops may have lived in the manor.
The extent of the manor, and the association with the Tower means the Tower division, also known as the Tower Hamlets may have been based on Stepney.
This was initially the only church for the Parish of Stepney which, like the manor, originally included much or all of the East End area, with daughter parishes forming much later as a result of population growth.
As patron of Stepney, Dunstan is the closest East London has to a patron saint. He is also the patron saint of bell ringers and various types of metalworker.
His feast day is 19 May. Dunstan's links to the area led to his fire-tong symbol being included in the coat of arms of the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney , and the arms of its successor, the modern London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
Throughout its history, the East End has evolved in response to economic and social change, including migration, with its population being joined by large numbers of people from the UK and overseas.
This is exemplified by the Brick Lane Mosque. The mosque was first built as a church by Huguenot Protestant refugees who came to East London to escape persecution in France.
After much of that community moved on from the Spitalfields area it was used as a Methodist chapel for a more widely based Christian congregation.
It later became a synagogue, used by Jewish people who came to avoid pogroms in the Russian Empire and other parts of Europe. The Jewish community of the area dwindled, and in the building was taken on by the local Bengali community and is now used as a mosque.
The Tower Division also known as the Tower Hamlets , was a part of Middlesex, but managed the reserve forces and other county functions itself; it was independent of the Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex, having its own Lord Lieutenant , the Constable of the Tower.
The Tower Hamlets men, or Hamleteers , supplemented the Tower of London's small Yeoman Warder garrison, and were also available for use in the field.
Local forces continued to be primarily based on the Tower Division until its abolishment in , though Tower Hamlets units remained part of the army until During the twentieth century, army units were generally based on more local areas, for instance the Poplar and Stepney Rifles.
The Pearly Kings and Queens , or more usually pearlies , are a traditional part of London costermonger culture, their name derives from their clothes which are decorated with mother-of-pearl buttons.
They are now devoted entirely to charitable activities. At the end of the 17th century large numbers of Huguenot weavers arrived in the East End, settling to service an industry that grew up around the new estate at Spitalfields , where master weavers were based.
They brought with them a tradition of "reading clubs", where books were read, often in public houses. The authorities were suspicious of immigrants meeting and in some ways they were right to be as these grew into workers' associations and political organisations.
Towards the middle of the 18th century the silk industry fell into a decline — partly due to the introduction of printed calico cloth — and riots ensued.
These " Spitalfield Riots " of were actually centred to the east and were put down with considerable force, culminating in two men being hanged in front of the Salmon and Ball public house at Bethnal Green.
In , an Association for Promoting Cleanliness among the Poor was established, and built a bath-house and laundry in Glasshouse Yard, East Smithfield.
This cost a single penny for bathing or washing, and by June was receiving 4, people a year. This led to an Act of Parliament to encourage other municipalities to build their own and the model spread quickly throughout the East End.
Timbs noted that " Soon after his arrival in a cholera epidemic swept the East End killing 3, people. Many families were left destitute, with thousands of children orphaned and forced to beg or find work in the factories.
In , Barnardo set up a Ragged School to provide a basic education but was shown the many children sleeping rough. His first home for boys was established at 18 Stepney Causeway in When a boy died after being turned away the home was full , the policy was instituted of "No Destitute Child Ever Refused Admission".
In , the Settlement movement was founded, with settlements such as Toynbee Hall  and Oxford House, to encourage university students to live and work in the slums , experience the conditions and try to alleviate some of the poverty and misery in the East End.
Notable residents of Toynbee Hall included R. The Hall continues to exert considerable influence, with the Workers Educational Association , Citizens Advice Bureau and Child Poverty Action Group all being founded or influenced by it.
In , the matchgirls of Bryant and May in Bow went on strike for better working conditions. Another notable strike by women, was in , when female staff at the Ford plant in Dagenham took industrial action to gain the same wages as male staff.
These actions, combined with the many dock strikes , made the East End a key element in the foundation and achievements of modern socialist and trade union organisations, as well as the Suffragette movement.
By , he had organised a mass London garment workers' strike for better conditions and an end to " sweating ".
Afanasy Matushenko, one of the leaders of the Potemkin mutiny , fled the failure of the Russian Revolution of to seek sanctuary in Stepney Green.
By the s, the casual system caused dock workers to unionise under Ben Tillett and John Burns. Birt, the general manager at Millwall Docks , gave evidence to a Parliamentary committee , on the physical condition of the workers:.
The poor fellows are miserably clad, scarcely with a boot on their foot, in a most miserable state These are men who come to work in our docks who come on without having a bit of food in their stomachs, perhaps since the previous day; they have worked for an hour and have earned 5d.
These conditions earned dockers much public sympathy, and after a bitter struggle, the London Dock Strike of was settled with victory for the strikers, and established a national movement for the unionisation of casual workers, as opposed to the craft unions that already existed.
The philanthropist Angela Burdett-Coutts was active in the East End, alleviating poverty by founding a sewing school for ex-weavers in Spitalfields and building the ornate Columbia Market in Bethnal Green.
She helped to inaugurate the London Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children , was a keen supporter of the Ragged School Union , and operated housing schemes similar to those of the Model Dwellings Companies such as the East End Dwellings Company and the Four Per Cent Industrial Dwellings Company , where investors received a financial return on their philanthropy.
They advocated focusing on the causes of poverty and the radical notion of poverty being involuntary, rather than the result of innate indolence.
At the time their work was rejected but was gradually adopted as policy by successive governments. Sylvia Pankhurst became increasingly disillusioned with the suffragette movement's inability to engage with the needs of working-class women, so in she formed her own breakaway movement, the East London Federation of Suffragettes.
She based it at a baker's shop at Bow emblazoned with the slogan, " Votes for Women ", in large gold letters. The local Member of Parliament, George Lansbury , resigned his seat in the House of Commons to stand for election on a platform of women's enfranchisement.
Pankhurst supported him in this, and Bow Road became the campaign office, culminating in a huge rally in nearby Victoria Park. Lansbury was narrowly defeated in the election, however, and support for the project in the East End was withdrawn.
Pankhurst refocused her efforts, and with the outbreak of the First World War , she began a nursery, clinic and cost price canteen for the poor at the bakery.
A paper, the Women's Dreadnought , was published to bring her campaign to a wider audience. Pankhurst spent twelve years in Bow fighting for women's rights.
During this time, she risked constant arrest and spent many months in Holloway Prison , often on hunger strike. She finally achieved her aim of full adult female suffrage in , and along the way she alleviated some of the poverty and misery, and improved social conditions for all in the East End.
The alleviation of widespread unemployment and hunger in Poplar had to be funded from money raised by the borough itself under the Poor Law.
The poverty of the borough made this patently unfair and lead to the conflict between government and the local councillors known as the Poplar Rates Rebellion.
Council meetings were for a time held in Brixton prison , and the councillors received wide support. The General Strike had begun as a dispute between miners and their employers outside London in On 1 May the Trades Union Congress called out workers all over the country, including the London dockers.
The government had had over a year to prepare and deployed troops to break the dockers' picket lines. Armed food convoys, accompanied by armoured cars, drove down the East India Dock Road.
By 10 May, a meeting was brokered at Toynbee Hall to end the strike. The TUC were forced into a humiliating climbdown and the general strike ended on 11 May, with the miners holding out until November.
The centres were initially established as places people could meet for social, educational and recreational interaction, without any barriers of class, colour or creed.
Gandhi stayed at the centre for three months in , during talks held with the British government. He preferred to stay with the poor people of East London, rather than take up the government's offer of an expensive West End hotel.
He then headed to western England to campaign there. The Yorkist Bastard Fauconberg took the opportunity afforded by Edward's absence and raised armies in Kent and Essex, which headed to London to try to free Henry from the Tower.
Fauconberg unsuccessfully tried to battle across London Bridge and also attacked the eastern gates with five thousand men and artillery.
Bishopsgate was set on fire  and the attackers came close to capturing Aldgate and with it the City. The gate was breached and the attackers started to pour through, but a portcullis was dropped when only some had passed through, killing some and isolating those who had already passed through — these were then killed by the defenders.
A force of troops from the Tower garrison came through the Tower Postern, the small side gate where the city wall met the Tower moat and attacked the pro-Lancastrian besiegers from the flank while a counter-attack was launched from within the gate.
The attackers were defeated and pursued, with the Essex men retreating over Bow Bridge and the Kentish men headed to their ships at Blackwall.
Both retreating groups suffered heavy casualties in the pursuit. The first bomb of the first air raid fell on West Hackney on 31 May ,  it was the first time the capital had been assaulted by a foreign enemy since William the Conqueror ravaged Southwark in The first raid killed seven in a wide arc across London, outraging public opinion.
East London was at particular risk during the early attacks due to the Kaiser's order, later rescinded, that the raiders limit themselves to targets east of the Tower of London.
Raids by airships of the German Army and Navy continued through till ; with raids by fixed wing aircraft in During the war a total of children and adults were killed in the East End by aerial bombing, with many more injured.
The largest single loss of life occurred due to an industrial accident a plant producing supplies for the war effort. On 19 January , 73 people died, including 14 workers, and more than were injured, in a TNT explosion in the Brunner-Mond munitions factory in Silvertown.
Much of the area was flattened, and the shock wave was felt throughout the city and much of Essex. This was the largest explosion in London history, and was heard in Southampton and Norwich.
The explosion happened in the early evening, if it had occurred in the day, or at night then the death toll would have been much greater.
Andreas Angel, chief chemist at the plant, was posthumously awarded the Edward Medal for trying to extinguish the fire that caused the blast.
Hardest of all, the Luftwaffe will smash Stepney. I know the East End! Those dirty Jews and Cockneys will run like rabbits into their holes. Initially, the German commanders were reluctant to bomb London, fearing retaliation against Berlin.
On 24 August , a single aircraft, tasked to bomb Tilbury , accidentally bombed Stepney, Bethnal Green and the City. The following night the RAF retaliated by mounting a forty aircraft raid on Berlin, with a second attack three days later.
The Luftwaffe changed its strategy from attacking shipping and airfields to attacking cities. This was followed by a second wave of bombers.
Silvertown and Canning Town bore the brunt of this first attack. Between 7 September and 10 May , a sustained bombing campaign was mounted.
It began with the bombing of London for 57 successive nights,  an era known as " the Blitz ". East London was targeted because the area was a centre for imports and storage of raw materials for the war effort, and the German military command felt that support for the war could be damaged among the mainly working class inhabitants.
On the first night of the Blitz, civilians were killed and 1, seriously wounded. Although the official death toll is 73,  many local people believed it must have been higher.
Some estimates say or even may have lost their lives during this raid on Canning Town. The effect of the intensive bombing worried the authorities and Mass-Observation was deployed to gauge attitudes and provide policy suggestions,  as before the war they had investigated local attitudes to anti-Semitism.
Propaganda was issued, reinforcing the image of the "brave chirpy Cockney ". Anti-aircraft installations were built in public parks, such as Victoria Park and the Mudchute on the Isle of Dogs, and along the line of the Thames, as this was used by the aircraft to guide them to their target.
The authorities were initially wary of opening the London Underground for shelter, fearing the effect on morale elsewhere in London and hampering normal operations.
On 12 September, having suffered five days of heavy bombing, the people of the East End took the matter into their own hands and invaded Liverpool Street Station   with pillows and blankets.
The government relented and opened the partially completed Central line as a shelter. Many deep tube stations remained in use as shelters until the end of the war.
These exploded at roof top height, causing severe damage to buildings over a wider radius than the impact bombs. By now, the Port of London had sustained heavy damage with a third of its warehouses destroyed, and the West India and St Katherine Docks had been badly hit and put out of action.
Families had crowded into the underground station due to an air-raid siren at , one of 10 that day. There was a panic at coinciding with the sound of an anti-aircraft battery possibly the recently installed Z battery being fired at nearby Victoria Park.
In the wet, dark conditions, a woman slipped on the entrance stairs and people died in the resulting crush. The truth was suppressed, and a report appeared that there had been a direct hit by a German bomb.
The results of the official investigation were not released until The first V-1 flying bomb struck in Grove Road, Mile End, on 13 June , killing six, injuring 30, and making people homeless.
Before demolition, local artist Rachel Whiteread made a cast of the inside of Grove Road. Despite attracting controversy, the exhibit won her the Turner Prize for In Bethnal Green, people were killed, and were seriously injured.
War production was changed quickly to making prefabricated houses ,  and many were installed in the bombed areas and remained common into the s.
Today, s and s architecture dominates the housing estates of the area such as the Lansbury Estate in Poplar , much of which was built as a show-piece of the Festival of Britain.
As a maritime port, plague and pestilence has fallen on East Enders disproportionately. The area most afflicted by the Great Plague was Spitalfields,  and cholera epidemics broke out in Limehouse in and struck again in and The Princess Alice was a passenger steamer crowded with day trippers returning from Gravesend to Woolwich and London Bridge.
On the evening of 3 September , she collided with the steam collier Bywell Castle and sank into the Thames in under four minutes.
Of the approximately passengers, over were lost. The ship's entry into the water created a huge displacement wave which caused a crowded pier to collapse into the water.
Large crowds had been watching the launch, a moment of celebration for the community, and 38 people, mostly women and children were drowned.
Another tragedy occurred on the morning of 16 May when Ronan Point , a storey tower block in Newham , suffered a structural collapse due to a gas explosion.
Four people were killed in the disaster and seventeen were injured, as an entire corner of the building slid away. The collapse caused major changes in UK building regulations and led to the decline of further building of high rise council flats that had characterised s public architecture.
The high levels of poverty in the East End have, throughout history, corresponded with a high incidence of crime.
From earliest times, crime depended, as did labour, on the importing of goods to London, and their interception in transit.
Theft occurred in the river, on the quayside and in transit to the City warehouses. This was why, in the 17th century, the East India Company built high-walled docks at Blackwall and had them guarded to minimise the vulnerability of their cargoes.
Armed convoys would then take the goods to the company's secure compound in the City. The practice led to the creation of ever-larger docks throughout the area, and large roads to drive through the crowded 19th century slums to carry goods from the docks.
No police force operated in London before the s. Crime and disorder were dealt with by a system of magistrates and volunteer parish constables, with strictly limited jurisdiction.
Salaried constables were introduced by , although they were few in number and their power and jurisdiction continued to derive from local magistrates, who in extremis could be backed by militias.
In , England's first Marine Police Force was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and a Master Mariner, John Harriott , to tackle theft and looting from ships anchored in the Pool of London and the lower reaches of the river.
Its base was and remains in Wapping High Street. It is now known as the Marine Support Unit. Each division was controlled by a superintendent, under whom were four inspectors and sixteen sergeants.
The regulations demanded that recruits should be under thirty-five years of age, well built, at least 5-footinch 1. Unlike the former constables, the police were recruited widely and financed by a levy on ratepayers; so they were initially disliked.
The force took until the midth century to be established in the East End. One of the East End industries that serviced ships moored off the Pool of London was prostitution , and in the 17th century, this was centred on the Ratcliffe Highway , a long street lying on the high ground above the riverside settlements.
In , it was described by the antiquarian John Stow as "a continual street, or filthy straight passage, with alleys of small tenements or cottages builded, inhabited by sailors and victuallers".
Crews were paid off at the end of a long voyage, and would spend their earnings on drink in the local taverns. One madame described as "the great bawd of the seamen" by Samuel Pepys was Damaris Page.
Born in Stepney in approximately , she had moved from prostitution to running brothels, including one on the Highway that catered for ordinary seaman and a further establishment nearby that catered for the more expensive tastes amongst the officers and gentry.
She died wealthy, in , in a house on the Highway, despite charges being brought against her and time spent in Newgate Prison.
By the 19th century, an attitude of toleration had changed, and the social reformer William Acton described the riverside prostitutes as a "horde of human tigresses who swarm the pestilent dens by the riverside at Ratcliffe and Shadwell".
The Society for the Suppression of Vice estimated that between the Houndsditch, Whitechapel and Ratcliffe areas there were prostitutes; and between Mile End, Shadwell and Blackwall women in the trade.
They were often victims of circumstance, there being no welfare state and a high mortality rate amongst the inhabitants that left wives and daughters destitute, with no other means of income.
At the same time, religious reformers began to introduce "seamens' missions" throughout the dock areas that sought both to provide for seafarers' physical needs and to keep them away from the temptations of drink and women.
Eventually, the passage of the Contagious Diseases Prevention Act in allowed policemen to arrest prostitutes and detain them in hospital. The act was repealed in , after agitation by early feminists, such as Josephine Butler and Elizabeth Wolstenholme, led to the formation of the Ladies National Association for the Repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts.
Notable crimes in the area include the Ratcliff Highway murders ;  the killings committed by the London Burkers apparently inspired by Burke and Hare in Bethnal Green ;  the notorious serial killings of prostitutes by Jack the Ripper ;  and the Siege of Sidney Street in which anarchists, inspired by the legendary Peter the Painter , took on Home Secretary Winston Churchill , and the army.
In the s the East End was the area most associated with gangster activity, most notably that of the Kray twins. Two people were killed and thirty-nine injured in one of Mainland Britain's biggest bomb attacks by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.
In the City authorities banned the building of playhouses in the City of London area, consequently theatres were built in the suburbs, beyond its jurisdiction.
The first permanent theatres with resident companies were constructed in Shoreditch, with James Burbage 's The Theatre and Henry Lanman's Curtain Theatre standing close together.
These venues played a major part in Shakespeare's early career, with Romeo and Juliet and Henry V first performed at the Curtain. The play Henry V makes direct reference to the Curtain Theatre .
On the night of 28 December Burbage's sons dismantled The Theatre, and moved it piece by piece across the Thames to construct the Globe Theatre.
In the 19th century the theatres of the East End rivalled in their grandiosity and seating capacity those of the West End.
The first of this era was the ill-fated Brunswick Theatre , which collapsed three days after opening, killing 15 people.
There were also many Yiddish theatres , particularly around Whitechapel. These developed into professional companies, after the arrival of Jacob Adler in and the formation of his Russian Jewish Operatic Company that first performed in Beaumont Hall,  Stepney, and then found homes both in the Prescott Street Club, Stepney, and in Princelet Street in Spitalfields.
Performances were in Yiddish, and predominantly melodrama. The once popular music halls of the East End have mostly met the same fate as the theatres.
The music hall tradition of live entertainment lingers on in East End public houses, with music and singing.
This is complemented by less respectable amusements such as striptease , which, since the s has become a fixture of certain East End pubs, particularly in the area of Shoreditch , despite being a target of local authority restraints.
This coincided with a project by the philanthropist businessman, Edmund Hay Currie to use the money from the winding up of the Beaumont Trust,  together with subscriptions to build a "People's Palace" in the East End.
The complex was completed with a library, swimming pool, gymnasium and winter garden, by , providing an eclectic mix of populist entertainment and education.
A peak of tickets were sold for classes in , and by , a Bachelor of Science degree awarded by the University of London was introduced.
This finally closed in Professional theatre returned briefly to the East End in , with the formation of the Half Moon Theatre in a rented former synagogue in Aldgate.
In , they moved to a former Methodist chapel, near Stepney Green and built a new theatre on the site, opening in May , with a production of Sweeney Todd.
After years of disuse, it has been converted to a public house. Dagenham and Redbridge was formed by the merger of four clubs, from across East London, with a lineage dating back to There are not strong rivalries between the three clubs, instead there is a degree of overlap in support.
By contrast, the rivalry between West Ham and Millwall is one of the fiercest in English football. The rivalry between West Ham and Millwall is known as the Dockers Derby , as both clubs traditionally drew much of their support from the dockyards that once lay on either side of the Thames.
Society at large viewed the East End with a mixture of suspicion and fascination, with the use of the term East End in a pejorative sense beginning in the late 19th century,  as the expansion of London's population led to extreme overcrowding throughout the area and a concentration of poor people and immigrants.
Over the course of a century, the East End became synonymous with poverty, overcrowding, disease and criminality.
A shabby man from Paddington , St Marylebone or Battersea might pass muster as one of the respectable poor. But the same man coming from Bethnal Green , Shadwell or Wapping was an "East Ender", the box of Keating's bug powder must be reached for, and the spoons locked up.
In the long run this cruel stigma came to do good. It was a final incentive to the poorest to get out of the "East End" at all costs, and it became a concentrated reminder to the public conscience that nothing to be found in the "East End" should be tolerated in a Christian country.
This idea of the East End as lying beyond the pale of respectability was also emphasised by Jack London when he visited London in , and found that his Hackney carriage driver claimed not to know it.
London observed: " Thomas Cook and Son , path-finders and trail-clearers, living sign-posts to all the World The East End has been the subject of parliamentary commissions and other examinations of social conditions since the 19th century, as seen in Henry Mayhew 's London Labour and the London Poor  and Charles Booth 's Life and Labour of the People in London third, expanded edition —3, in 17 volumes.
Themes from these social investigations have been drawn out in fiction. Though the area has been productive of local writing talent, from the time of Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray the idea of 'slumming it' in the 'forbidden' East End has held a fascination for a coterie of the literati.
The image of the East Ender changed dramatically between the 19th century and the 20th. From the s they were characterised in culture as often shiftless, untrustworthy and responsible for their own poverty.
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